Gladyshev Georgi Pavlovich
Professor Georgi Pavlovich Gladyshev, President and founder of the International Academy of Creative Endeavors, as well as the Academy of Science, Arts and Social Issues (Akademiya Tvorchestva, Moscow, Russia), is the son of Pavel Gladyshev and Apollinariya Zaikova. Born on 19 September 1936 in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, he graduated the Chemistry Department of the Kazakh State University in Alma-Ata and received the Degree of Candidate of Science in 1962 and a Doctorate Degree in polymer chemistry in 1966. He became Professor of Physical Chemistry in 1969 and in 1970 chief of the laboratory at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow; a position he still holds. Since 1968 he has been a visiting professor and scientific adviser at several state universities, industrial plants, and firms. In 1989 he was elected President of the Academy of Creative Endeavors of the USSR (now the International Academy of Creative Endeavors). In 1990 he became the head of the Institute of Ecological Biophysical Chemistry. He is the author of more than four hundred scientific articles and eight monographs in the fields of Physical and Polymer Chemistry. His latest monographs include «Thermodynamics and Macrokinetics of Natural Hierarchical Processes» (Nauka, Moscow, 1988, 288 p.) and «Ecological Biophysical Chemistry» (Nauka, Moscow, 1989, 135 p.). He has conducted research in the fields of polymer chemistry, the physico-chemical mechanism of the formation of the planetary system, the mechanism of chirality formation, the nature of ball lightning, biological evolution and macrothermodynamics. Member of Editorial Board of Scientific-Philosophical Journal “Philosophy and Cosmology”.
He studied at the Chemistry Department of the State University in Alma-Ata where he engaged in experimental research in various fields of physical chemistry under Professor M.I. Usanovich. He explored the phase diagrams for two-component systems, incorporating chloric, sulphuric, nitric, acetic and chloroacetic acids. He confirmed the existence of cation nitronium in the nitrating mixtures and established the existence of a number of compounds of products of interacting inorganic acids. This was an excellent school for a chemist-experimenter. As a post-graduate student at the Kazakh Academy of Science Institute of Chemistry under Professor S.R. Rafikov, he conducted research in the mechanism of the polymerisation of vinyl monomers with the aim of creating a new technological process in the manufacture of large blocks from organic glass. This research was continued and resulted in the industrial introduction of an original technology in attaining organic blocks. To date the efficiency of this technology has not been surpassed. The results of his research were summarised in the thesis of his doctorate. While working at the Institute of Chemistry in Alma-Ata he published two books, one of which (an advanced textbook) is still used in laboratories as a practical manual — «The Polymerisation of Vinyl Monomers» (Academy of Science of the Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata, 1964, 322 p.). Between 1968 and 1970 he worked at the Institute of Chemistry of the Bashkir Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Ufa. There together with his post-graduate students he carried out a number of research in the field of immunoadsorbtion, photochemistry, and synthesis of new polymers. At the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow where he had been invited by professors N.N. Semenov and N.M. Emanuel, he organised a small laboratory of thermostable polymers and since 1987 laboratory of thermodynamics and macrokinetics of non-equilibrium processes where he was in charge of research in the field of the radical polymerisation and stabilization of polymers. Some results of the research are reflected in the monograph «Radical Polymerisation at High Conversion» (Nauka, Moscow, 1974, 243 p., co-author, B.A. Popov) and a number of articles, for example Vysokomol. Soed., A18, No. 11, 2387-2394, 1976 and J. Polymer Sci., Pol. Chem. Ed., 14, 1753-1759, 1976. In the course of an experiment conducted in the same period, he discovered and explained the phenomenon of the periodic polymerisation in the two-phase heterogeneous systems (Reports of USSR Academy of Sciences, 260, No. 6, 1394-1397, 1981). Beginning with 1968-1970, he carried out theoretical research pertaining to the fundamental problem of physical science. In February 1977 he published a scientific paper presenting an original model of the formation of the Solar System («The Role of Physico-Chemical Processes in the Formation of the Planetary Systems», Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 1-7, February, 1977). Previously known models examined a number of stages of the planetary systems formation are merely taking into consideration the physical effects, including the magnetohydrodynamic phenomenon (H. Alfvйn, G. Arrhenius, and other). Professor Gladyshev’s model includes a new lengthy stage of evolution that is connected with the diffusion (mass transfer) of matter of protosun into protonebulae. As a result of the chemical reaction of matter of the protosun and protonebulae, new matter is formed which is condensed from a supersaturated (supercooling) state. The well-known mechanism (known in chemistry as the spatially periodic condensation) permits explaining the origin in the solar protonebula (as the planetary protonebulae) of ring structures, in accordance with the well-known law of Titius-Bode (The Moon and the Planets, 18, 217-221, 1978; 19, 89-98, 1978; 25, 413-425, 1981, co-author, V.P. Budtov). Professor Gladyshev’s model allowed him to make a number of predictions that were subsequently confirmed by Voyager-2. Moreover the model foresaw the existence of rings encircling Uranus before their discovering in March 1977, also the rings of Neptune and other now known facts. A similar model was proposed also for the condensation of matter in the comets’ atmosphere, etc. («Thermodynamics and Macrokinetics of Natural Hierarchical Processes», Moscow, p. 288, 1988). A theoretical study of the physico-chemical reactions in deep Space permitted putting forward a new conception of the possible origin of the optical activity of molecules. On Earth when there is no stereospecific catalyst, it is impossible to give preference to left or right structures — the products of chemical reactions. This is impeded by the thermal background whose energy determined by the magnitude kBT (kB — Boltzmann constant, T — temperature) extends by far the energy of natural electric and magnetic fields which in principle are able to orientate some responding molecules. In deep Space where there is only a background of relict radiation, and the intervals between the collisions of molecules are enormous, they can orientate themselves in natural electric and magnetic fields. During the interaction of oriented molecules a substance can be formed containing more left than right isomers or vice-versa. It stands to reason that this model describes the possible emergence of optical activity in separate parts of the Universe (The Moon and Planets, 19, 89-98, 1978; Origins of Life, 10, 247-254, 1980, co-author, M.M. Khasanov; J. Theor. Biol., 90, 191-198, 1981, co-author, M.M. Khasanov). Another model of the emergence of asymmetry in the bioworld is linked with the possible influence of Coriolis forces on the growth of living organisms. The model has reliable substantiation, if it is assumed that the growth of biotissues of separate organisms may be considered as a flow of some fluids (Ukrainian Polymer Journal, 1, No. 1, 55-62, 1992). One of the models of ball lightning was made possible on the basis of the physico-chemical mechanisms. According to the model the ball lightning feeds on direct electric currents in the atmosphere. In the flame zone of ball lightning, atmospheric nitrogen is combustible. This endothermic reaction demands energy that is fed to it by currents flowing between the areas carrying volumetric electric charges. This short but original article was published in Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences (24, No. 2, 341-344, 1983) and presented as a report at the international symposium in Tokyo («Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball)», Ed. Yoshi-Hiko Ohtsuki, World Scientific, Singapore, 1989, pp. 242-253). From 1975 through 1996 Professor Gladyshev was engaged in working on biological macrothermodynamics and on its basis, formulation of the physical theory of evolution (J. Theor. Biol. 75, 425-444, 1978; J. Biolog. Systems, 1, No. 2, 1993; Biology Bulletin ISSN 1062-3590, Russia Academy of Sci., N 1, 1995, 5-14; N1, 1996; N4, 1996; J. Biological Physics 20, 213-222, 1994; 22, 1996; Vestnik RMA, 1996; Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, M. Luch, 1996). Macrothermodynamics studies on an integral level complex heterogeneous chemical and biological systems, primarily the open hierarchical systems, exchanging matter and energy with the environment. The methods of macrothermodynamics are based on the foundation of classical thermodynamics and macrokinetics aimed in the development of classical thermodynamic theory. The law of unidirectional series of relaxation times (life times) has been formulated. If one were to examine for instance, the hierarchy of — «community, population, organism, cell, organelle, macromolecule, molecule», one would notice that molecules in the biotissue freely exist (live) on average minutes, macromolecules — many hours, organelles — months. Cells, organisms, populations, communities, live still longer. Although the «spectrums» of the live times of each structural type is wide, nevertheless it is possible to distinguish triads of relaxation lifetimes with strong inequality. The latter signifies that one can distinguish the system under study and its thermostat (the environment with practically no changes in the significant parameters). If this is achieved, it is possible to use with a certain degree of approximation the principles of classical thermodynamics and macrokinetics in describing the evolution of the biological systems (which may be presented as a series of successive processes of condensation whereby higher hierarchical structures arise from the lower hierarchical structures). Unlike non-equilibrium thermodynamics of systems far from the state of equilibrium, macrothermodynamics explores systems close to the state of equilibrium, their conditions are determined by functions whose differentials are total. Professor Gladyshev succeeded in substantiating that the mean specific values of the Gibbs function related to a unit of volume or mass for intermolecular interactions at the formation of supramolecular (supracellar) structure of an j-th organism’s biotissue, , has the tendency to a minimum. This trend of to a minimum accounts for the accumulation in the biosystem of a substance with a chemically high energy capacity that leads to the growth of a specific chemical component of bioobject in the course of ontogenesis, phylogenesis and separate stages of evolution. This approach made it possible to substantiate and experimentally prove the possibility of accumulating and transferring hereditary thermodynamic features in the course of extensive periods of biological evolution (Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 63, No. 3, p. 164, 1993; Encyclopedia of Chemistry, vol.4, 1995, Moscow). The macrothermodynamic theory permits the spreading to the biological systems of all hierarchies the principle of Le Chatelier-Braun on a quantitative basis. The latter is very promising for pharmacology, therapy, geriatrics, physiology of sports, in particular it will make it possible to determine man’s physiological age, the optimal doses of medication, the optimal work-out load during training sessions, etc. Recently the macrothermodynamic theory has spread to social systems of human society that apparently resulted in building one of the prospective models in the economy (Academy of Creative Endeavors, Moscow, p. 6, 1993). Professor Gladyshev, H.E. is a member of many associations, societies and academies (Honorary Member of the International Order of Merit — IOM; Mamber of IBA — Cambridge, England; Honorary Mamber of International Higher Education Academy of Sciences — IHEAS, Moscow; Active member — academician of International Academy of Sciences — IAS, Munchen; Member of International Academy of Creative Endeavors; Member of Academy of Human Pursuit, USSR; Member of Academy of Physical Sciences, Moscow; Member of Academy of Book’s Arts; Member of World Literary Academy; Member of the New York Academy of Sciences; Member of Academy Technological sciences of the Chuvash Republic; Member of the Amer. Chem. Soc., 1978; Member of the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; Member of the academic Advisory council for the Lab. Of Bio-organophosphorus chemistry (Tsinghua univ., China); International Member AAAS — USA, 1996 and others. He is one of the Editors of the «Journal of Biological Systems» (World Scientific, an international publisher), member of the Advisory Board of the Ukrainian Polymer Journal. He is also the recipient of many honours and awards, including the Willard Gibbs Gold Medal, the International Academy of Creative Endeavors (1991), «World Intellectual» (1993, IBC), «The Twentieth Century Award for Achievement» (1992, IBC), «Grand Ambassador of Achievement» — twenty-five years of outstanding personalities (1992, ABI), World Lifetime Achievement Award (USA -1993, 1995, 1996). He has been honoured the International Order of Merit «Exellentia» and others. In addition to his great interest in science, he enjoys mountaineering and travelling. He has one son, Andrei, who was born in 1960, a daughter, Ekaterina, who was born in 1962, a grandson Ilya, who was born in 1984.
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