1 SI. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russia)
Received: 2 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
The article presents the research materials and results on artificial gravity for humans in space. We analyse several important and interrelated aspects of the development and application of artificial gravity in manned spaceflights and providing permanent safe, dignified human life in outer space from an interdisciplinary perspective and in the context of theory and practice. The article introduces philosophical foundations of artificial gravity from the perspective of praxeology and space biospheres environment management to ensure human life, safety, and development in space. A brief description of the conceptual model of outer space applications of artificial gravity for humans is made. The definitions are given. The main methods of creation and influence and modes of artificial gravity application for humans in outer space are systematized. This article reviews the global evolution of ideas, technologies, and artificial gravity projects in the 19th-21th centuries; it presents periodization, general classification and important examples. The article studies advances, issues, limits and perspectives of the research and application of artificial gravity for space exploration. The key conclusions are formulated.
Keywords: artificial gravity, human, life, philosophy of gravity, space, space biosphere, spaceflight
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