1 Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Lviv, Ukraine)
2 Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Lviv, Ukraine)
Received: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
The article demonstrates how Charles Sanders Peirce built cosmological ideas based on the analysis of the specifics of a human being. It is proved that the possibility of a certain degree of anthropocentrism in Peirce’s cosmological conception was laid down in the categorical system, including the level of the Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness. It is shown why according to his scientific metaphysics, for everyone, the concept that corresponds to human nature is more true than other ones, as well as why a person instinctively feels the truth. This situation is possible because the laws of thought are formulated in accordance with the laws of nature. Human nature reflects what is in the world. Thus, through self-knowledge, a person also discovers reality itself as a dynamic universe in which the physical and he mental, the real and the ideal are subject to the same laws (habits-regularities). However, human beings do not know all of them, but only those that correspond to the level of their understanding and interests. Subsequently, science and technology are built on the basis of individuals’ own intentions. Human beings realize that the universe is boundless and not everything they are able to understand and justify. This makes fallibilism inevitable. It is analyzed how to solve the difficulties of fallibilism; Peirce proposed to use the concept of practical certainty as a basic criterion for recognizing the system of knowledge about the world as true. It is shown that the concepts of tychism, synechism, and agapism, which reveal the meaning of Peirce’s cosmological theory of evolution, are also based on the principles of anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism. Thus, it is argued that human being becomes the key to understanding Peirce’s metaphysical cosmology.
Keywords: cosmology, universe, person, law, Charles Sanders Peirce
Bailey, Solon Irving (1931) The History and Work of Harvard Observatory, 1839 to 1927; an Outline of the Origin, Development, and Researches of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College together with Brief Biographies of Its Leading Members. New York, London: McGraw-Hill book company, inc.
Bellucci, Francesco (2017) Peirce’s Speculative Grammar: Logic as Semiotics. London: Routledge.
Brent, Joseph (1998) Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.
Brioschi, Maria Regina (2016) Hints toward Cosmology: The Need for Cosmology in Peirce’s Philosophy. SCIO. Revista de Filosofía, 12, 51-73.
Carter, Brandon (1974) Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in Cosmology. IAU Symposium 63: Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with Observational Data. Dordrecht: Reidel, 291-298.
Chiasson, Phyllis (2001) Peirce’s Pragmatism: The Design for Thinking. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Esposito, Joseph L. (1980) Evolutionary Metaphysics: The Development of Peirce’s Theory of Categories. Ohio: Ohio University Press.
Hartshorne, Charles, and Paul Weiss (1935) Editorial Note. In: Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Vol. 6 (pp. III-V). Cambridge., Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Ioannidis, Iraklis (2019) The Other Side of Peirce’s Phaneroscopy: Questioning and Analogising Phaneron… without ‘Being.’ Sofia Philosophical Review, 2(12), 74-101.
Kasak, Enn, and Raul Veede (2016) Understanding Knowledge through the Example of C. S. Peirce’s Cosmology. Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum, 4(2), 69-87. https://doi.org/10.11590/abhps.2016.2.04
Melnyk, Volodymyr (2020) Philosophical Aspects of Human Dimension of Scientific and Technological Progress. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Philos.-Political Studies, 28, 9-17.
Peirce, Charles Sanders (1878) Photometric Researches Made in the Years 1872-1875. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.
Peirce, Charles Sanders (1931-1958) Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, 8 vols. Hartshorne, Charles, and Weiss, Paul (Vol. 1-6) (eds), Burks, Arthur W. (Vol. 7-8) (ed.). Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Peirce, Charles Sanders (1953) To Lady Welby. New Haven: Graduate Philosophy Club.
Reynolds, Andrew (2002) Peirce’s Scientific Metaphysics. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Short, Thomas L. (2010) Did Peirce Have a Cosmology? Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 46(4), 521-543.
Synytsia, Andrii (2020) The Basics of Neo-Realist Cosmology: Bertrand Russell against Alfred North Whitehead. Philosophy and Cosmology, 25, 181-192. https://doi.org/10.29202/phil-cosm/25/15.
Van Evra, James, Nathan Houser, and Don D. Roberts (1997) Studies in the logic of Charles Sanders Peirce. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Whitney, William Dwight. (ed.) (1889) The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. Vol. 2. Part 5. New York: The Century Company.