1 Scientific Institute of Public Law (Kyiv, Ukraine)
Received: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 29 January 2021
The article analyses the modern and retrospective international and national regulations in the field of space activities. It is emphasized that the long-term program of space research proves the maturity and competence that we have yet to demonstrate. The development of such a program (rather, doctrine) is beyond the preparation of a formal document. The challenges we have outlined are about the role of the space doctrine in the system of conceptual documents defining the areas of the space sector’s sustainable development. In the study, the dialectical materialist method of in the cognition of the objective reality enables to analyze of comprehensively doctrinal provisions in developing the concept “Space doctrine.” The empirical research was based on the statistical and analytical materials: World Trade Organization Annual Report 2019, the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities for 2018, Aeronautics and Space Report of the President — Fiscal Year 2019 Activities, the statistical data and reports of the State Space Agency of Ukraine (SSAU) for 1997-2020. The study leads to a number of conclusions. The implementation of the future Space doctrine should be a shift from the initial state of affairs to the new model of space activities and the sustainable development of the space industry. The study reveals three levels of Space doctrine: basic, strategic, and tactical (operational).
Keywords: space doctrine, national space interests, social benefit, sustainable development, innovations, public-private partnership, space technologies
Activity Reports (2020) State Space Agency of Ukraine. Available online: https://www.nkau.gov.ua/ua/activity/zvity-pro-diialnist
Air Force Doctrine Document 2-2 (2006) Space Operation. USAF. Available online: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/usaf/afdd2_2.pdf
Annual Report of the State Corporation for Space Activities “Roskosmos” for 2018 (2019) Approved by the Supervisory Board of the State Corporation for Space Activities “Roscosmos” on July 29, 2019, Protocol No. 29-NS. Available online: https://www.roscosmos.ru/media/img/2019/august/godovoi.otcet.goskorporazii.roskosmos.2018.g..pdf
Aeronautics and Space Report of the President (2019) NASA Official: Stephen Garber Last Updated: December 20. Available online: https://history.nasa.gov/presrep.html
Associated Press/NORC Center for Public Affairs Research (University of Chicago), “Space Exploration: Attitudes toward the US Space Program” (2019) Available online: http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/SpaceExploration-Attitudes-toward-the-U-S–SpaceProgram.aspx
Babcock, Hope M. (2019) The Public Trust Doctrine, Outer Space, and the Global Commons: Time to Call Home ET. Georgetown University Law Center. Available online: https://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3219&context=facpub
Benedek, Wolfgang and Matthias Ketteman (2013) Freedom of Expression and the Internet. Council of Europe Publishing House. Available online: https://rm.coe.int/168059936a
Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Data Protection (2018) ICO. Available online: https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/2013559/bigdata-ai-ml-and-data-protection.pdf
Executive Order on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources (2020) President of the United States of America? April 6, 2020. Whitehouse. Available online: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-encouraging-international-support-recovery-use-space-resources/
Funk, Cary and Mark Strauss (2018) Majority of Americans Believe it is Essential that the U.S. Remain a Global Leader in Space. Pew Research Center. Available online: http://assets.pewresearch.org/wpcontent/uploads/sites/14/2018/06/05153653/PS_2018.06.06_science-and-space_FINAL.pdf.
Gorbulin, Volodymyr (2020) Space Strategy and Prospects of the Country’s Development. State Space Agency of Ukraine. Available online: http://files.nas.gov.ua/PublicMessages/Documents/0/2020/03/200324121206878-791.pdf
Gurbachan, Singh Sachdeva (2016) Space Doctrine of India. Astropolitics 14 (2-3): 104-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/14777622.2016.1237211
Hart, Keith (2020) The Memory Bank. A New Commonwealth — Ver 5.0. Available online: https://thememorybank.co.uk/keith/
Hughes, Louise (2018) The Space Industry Act 2018. UN COPUOS LSC. Available online: https://www.unoosa.org/documents/pdf/copuos/lsc/2018/tech-01.pdf
Human Decisions: Thoughts on AI (2018) United Nations Educational. Available online: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000261563
Javaid, Mohd and Abid Haleem, Raju Vaishya, Shashi Bahl, Rajiv Suman, and Abhishek Vaishe (2020) Industry 4.0 technologies and their applications in fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 4, July-August, Pages 419-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.032
Lupton, Colonel David E. (1988) On Space Warfare: a Space Power Doctrine. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, June.
Malysheva, Nataliya and Anna Hurova (2018) Perspectives of Introduction the State-Private Partnership in Space Sphere of Ukraine. Economics and Law, No 2 (50). https://doi.org/10.15407/econlaw.2018.02.071
Martinez, Peter (2018) Development of an International Compendium of Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities. Space Policy, 43, 2-5.
Martinez, Larry F. (2019) Legal Regime Sustainability in Outer Space: Theory and Practice. Global Sustainability, Volume 2. Available online: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/global-sustainability/article/legal-regime-sustainability-in-outer-spacetheory-and-practice/614DDD6FE793315297AABBE983FA9168/core-reader
Millennium Development Goals (2015) UN. Available online: https://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
NASA Spinoff (2020) Available online: https://spinoff.nasa.gov/
On Space Activities (1996) Law of Ukraine of 15.11.1996, 502/96-VR. Available online: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/card/502/96-%D0%B2%D1%80
Patel, Neel V. (2020) Are we in the Middle of a New Space Race for this Century? MIT Technology Review. Available online: https://www.technologyreview. com/2020/02/07/349033/are-we-in-the-middle-of-a-new-space-race-for-this-century/
Report on the United Nations/Jordan Workshop on Global Partnership in Space Exploration and Innovation A/AC.105/1208 (2019) Available online: https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/oosadoc/data/documents/2019/aac.105/aac.1051208_0.html
Science, Research and Innovation Performance of the EU (SRIP) report (2020a) European Commission. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/research-and-innovation/strategy/support-policy-making/support-national-research-and-innovation-policymaking/srip-report_en
Science, Research and Innovation Performance of the EU 2020. A fair, green and digital Europe (2020b) European Commission. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/srip/2020/ec_rtd_srip-2020-report.pdf
Space2030: Space as a Driver for Peace (2018) UNOOSA. Available online: https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/outreach/events/2018/spacetrust.html
Soroka, Larysa and Kseniia Kurkova (2019) Artificial Intelligence and Space Technologies: Legal, Ethical and Technological Issues. Advanced Space Law, Volume 3, 131-139.https://doi.org/10.29202/asl/2019/3/11
Soroka, Larysa (2019) Public Regulation of Space Activities in Ukraine. Advanced Space Law. Volume 4: 68-79. https://doi.org/10.29202/asl/2019/4/7
Soroka, Larysa (2020) Sustainable Development of Space Activities as a Basis for Economic Development of the Country. Expert: Paradigms of Legal Sciences and Public Administration: Electronic Scientific Publication: Collection, Volume 2 (8).
THE 17 GOALS. History (2020) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available online: https://sdgs.un.org/ru/goals
White Paper China’s Space (2000) China National Space Administration Organizer: National Space Administration News and Publicity Center. Available online: http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/n6758824/n6758845/c6772480/content.html
White Paper China’s Space (2011) China National Space Administration Organizer: National Space Administration News and Publicity Center. Available online: http://english.www.gov.cn/archive/white_paper/2014/09/09/content_281474986284620.htm
Ursul, Tatiana (2018) Global evolution and socio-natural development. Palmarium Academic Publishing.