1 Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Kraków, Poland)
Received: 23 June 2020 / Аccepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
Posthuman and transhumanist discourse plays an essential role in shaping modern science. A successive redefinition of the concept of “human” takes place, broadening it to axiological and epistemological aspects. Postmodern reflection on this issue boils down to creating a new term “posthuman,” which today is the subject of research by scientists representing various perspectives — philosophical, cosmological, anthropological, and cultural. Nevertheless, the topicality of this issue goes hand in hand with the increasingly emerging problem of extending human existential space. This possibility appears with the exit into the extra-terrestrial sphere. The cosmos becomes a place that today becomes the object of particular interest and exploration by man. Therefore, the author of the article presents a philosophical and cosmological perspective of the process of redefining the concept of “human” by implementing these considerations in the posthumanist and transhumanist discourse. It has been indicated the basic premises shaping this matter — technological, political, ideological, and economical. At the same time, he emphasizes that despite technological and scientific achievements, the anthropocentric model still occupies a central place in the scientific discourse, which boils down to the claim that man is the determinant and indicator of this process.
Keywords: posthumanism, transhumanism, technological development, anthropocentric model of the world, cosmic existential space
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