1 Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University (Drohobych, Ukraine)
2 Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University (Drohobych, Ukraine)
Received: July 26, 2019 / Accepted: September 1, 2019 / Published: January 25, 2020
The article attempts to interpret the work “Cosmology of the Spirit” by the 20th century Russian philosopher Evald Ilyenkov (1924-1979). The analysis of this early text allows one to assert that its central thesis — “the matter cannot exist without thought” — proves the liberation from dogmatic, naturalism-oriented statements of official dialectical materialism. Liberation occurs as substantiation of the cosmic role of the reason. Liberation assumes poetic form, what is peculiar of this text. Thematically and problematically, it is a cosmological essay, but the thought here is built poetically, what is characteristic of the threshold forms of breaking the tradition and ordinariness. In this sense, “Cosmology of the Spirit” is perceived as finding a way to the main problems of creativity, what became thinking to Evald Ilyenkov. The authors have drawn a conclusion that the poetic character of Ilyenkov’s cosmological reflections proves the work on surmounting both the official dogma and the down-to-earth ordinariness of everyday life. Cosmological problems take the thinker to the space of understanding the mission and sense of thinking rather than understanding the narrow technology utilitarian issues that the instrumental mind is busy. It was noted, that starting from the middle of his essay, Evald Ilyenkov prefers the term “thinking spirit”, what removes the vulgar naturalistic understanding of the matter. It is thinking that becomes an important and effective cosmological actor. This gives grounds to speak of the noological nature of Ilyenkov’s reflections, within which the main topic of his further creative activity is crystallised.Keywords: Evald Ilyenkov, Spinoza, “Cosmology of the Spirit”, thinking, poetry, liberation work of mind
Against Ilyenkov (2013) Available online: https://torbasow.livejournal.com/539435.html
Bakhurst, David (1991) Consciousness and Revolution in Soviet Philosophy: from the Bolsheviks to EvaldIlyenkov. Cambridge University Press.
Bulgakov, Sergey (1993) Heroism and asceticism. Works in two volumes. Volume 2. Selected articles. Moscow, 302-342.
Camus, Alber (1990) Rebellious man. Rebellious man. Philosophy. Politics. Art. Moscow, 119-356.
Colletti, Lucio (1961) Prefazione. Il’enkov E.V. La dialettica dell’astratto e del concreto nel Capitale di Marx (traduzione dal russo di Vittorio Strada e Alberto Sandretti, introduzione di Lucio Colletti). Milano, Feltrinelli, (ristampa 1975).
Finogentov, Valeriy (2016) Philosophical discussion with E. V. Ilyenkov about the infinity of the universe and the role of the “thinking matter” in its evolution. Scientific result. Social and Humanitarian Studies, Vol. 2, No 2, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.18413/2408-932X-2016-2-2-18-26
Florovsky, George (2002) Evolution and epigenesis (to the problems of history). Faith and reason. St. Petersburg, 424–440.
Frank, Simon (1990) Incomprehensible. Ontological introduction to the philosophy of religion. Writings. Moscow.
Ilyenkov, Evald (1977) Dialectical Logic, Essays on its History and Theory. Trans. by H. Campbell Creighton. Moscow, Progress Publishers.
Ilyenkov, Evald (2017) Cosmology of the Spirit. Trans. Giuliano Vivaldi. Stasis, Vol. 5. no. 2.
Ilyenkov, Evald (1984) What is a person? How does a person begin? Moscow, 319-358.
Kant, Immanuel (1964) Criticism of pure reason. Works in six volumes. Volume 3. Moscow, Thought.
Lobastov, Gennady (2004a) Ilyenkov as a philosopher. Evald V. Ilyenkov in the memoirs. Moscow, 261-275.
Lobastov, Gennady (2004b) On the way to Ilyenkov. Evald V. Ilyenkov in the memoirs. Moscow, 136-164.
Losev, Alexey (1975) The history of ancient aesthetics. Aristotle and the late classics. Moscow, Art.
Losev, Alexey (1992) The history of ancient aesthetics. The results of the millennial development: In 2 books. Book 1. Moscow: Art.
Lotz, Corinna and Penny Cole (2012) Spinoza, Ilyenkov and Western Marxism — meeting the challenges of the global crisis. Spinoza in soviet thought. An International Symposium at the Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki. 18-19 May 2012. Available online: http://www.aworldtowin.net/resources/SpinozaIlyenkovWestern%20Marxism.html
Maidansky, Andrey (2015) “Russian European” E.V. Ilyenkov and Western Marxism. Philosophy issues, 3, 93-100.
Maidansky, Andrey (2014) Reality of the Ideal. Dialectics of the Ideal: Evald Ilyenkov and Creative Soviet Marxism. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
Maidansky, Andrey (2017) The Ilyenkov Triangle: Marxism in Search of its Philosophical Roots. Stasis, Vol. 5, no. 2, 136-163.
Mamardashvili, Merab (1991) Philosophy is consciousness out loud. As I understand the philosophy. Moscow, 57-72.
Mareev, Sergey (2015) Living philosophy. Moscow, Akademicheskii Proekt.
Oittinen, Vesa (2014) Evald Ilyenkov, the Soviet Spinozist. Dialectics of the Ideal. Evald Ilyenkov and Creative Soviet Marxism. Ed. Alex Levant and Vesa Oittinen. Leiden: Brill, 107–122. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004246928_006
Oittinen, Vesa (2011) Svobodnaya subektivnost protiv substantsializma: kritika Ilienkova i Spinozy Genrihom Batischevym. Bulletin of Slavic cultures, 2 (XX). 13-20.
Oittinen, Vesa (1992) Aporien des Ideellen: Zur Dialektik-Konzeption Ewald Iljenkows. Dialektik — Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie, 1, 141-150.
Oittinen, Vesa (2003) Hegels Geist im Realen Sozialismus: die Gesellschaftsontologie des spaten Lukacs und Iljenkow. Lukacs 2003: Jahrbuch der Internationalen GeorgLukacs-Gesellschaft. Bielefeld, 113-134.
Penzin, Alexei (2018) Contingency and Necessity in EvaldI lyenkov’s Communist Cosmology. e-flux Journal, No 88. Available online: https://www.e-flux.com/journal/88/174178/contingency-and-necessity-in-evald-ilyenkov-s-communist-cosmology/
Rilke, Rainer Maria (1977) New poems. Moscow, Science.
Turgenev, Ivan (1982a) Threshold. Comments. Complete works and letters in thirty volumes. Vol. 10. Moscow, Science, 493-498.
Turgenev, Ivan (1982b) Threshold. Complete works and letters in thirty volumes. Vol. 10. Moscow, Science, 147-148.
Vivaldi, Giuliano (2017) A Commentary on Evald Ilyenkov’s Cosmology of the Spirit. Stasis, Vol. 5, No. 2, 192-203. https://doi.org/10.33280/2310-3817-2017-5-2-
Welbeck, Michel (2003) Absurd as a creative factor. World as a supermarket. Moscow, 27-36.
Zsizsek, Slavoj (2018) Evald Ilyenkov’s cosmology: the point of madness of dialectical materialism. Available online: https://thephilosophicalsalon.com/evald-ilyenkovs-cosmology-thepoint-of-madness-of-dialectical-materialism